1 topic, 2 key figures, 3 startups to draw inspiration from
- Natural Gas extraction: 10 to 20% of the CO2 contained in natural gas needs to be extracted before any usage – represents 73% of the industrial CO2 captured
- Hydrogen production: a lot of CO2 is produced during the steam reforming production process – represents 18% of the industrial CO2 captured
- Biogas: up to 50% of CO2 needs to be extracted to have a proper quality after biogas production
- Pre-combustion capture: it removes CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed, through processes such as gasification (converts carbon-based materials by reaction at high temperature into synthesis gas) or reforming (converts carbon-based materials by reaction with water to produce synthesis gas, hydrogen or carbon monoxide). The Caledonia Clean Energy Project in the UK (due for the mid-2020s) will use gasification to capture more than 90% of the carbon emitted from a natural gas power plant.
- Post-combustion capture: it removes diluted CO2 (~5-15% CO2 concentration) from the flue gases once the fuel has been fully burned within the air. R&D efforts in post-combustion capture are focused on sorbents, membrane systems, and also novel concepts (e.g. hybrid systems that efficiently combine attributes from multiple key technologies). The Petra Nova project in Texas is the largest post-combustion capture solution and removes 92% of the CO2 from the plant.
- Oxy-fuel combustion systems: fossil fuels are combusted in a nearly pure oxygen environment, as opposed to air. The main purpose of using oxy-fuel combustion is to generate flue gas with very high concentrations of CO2 and water vapor, making it possible to separate or capture the CO2 from the flue gas purely by low-temperature dehydration and desulfurization processes. Air Liquide is taking part in several large-scale research projects in Europe and in North America, testing oxy-fuel combustion processes, such as the Lacq Project in the south of France where Air Liquide will supply TOTAL with oxygen at a rate of 240 tonnes per day.
2 Key Figures
3 startups to draw inspiration from
This week, we identified three startups that we can draw inspiration from: SeeO2, Climeworks and C-Capture.
See O2 Energy is a Canadian startup working to efficiently convert carbon dioxide and water into marketable and clean value-added products using reversible fuel cell technology. This solution makes it possible to effectively capture and use carbon to produce fuels, power, heat, and oxygen.
Climeworks is a spin-off company that develops a carbon dioxide reclaiming system. Its product extracts carbon dioxide from ambient air. It builds three models based on the amount of CO2 extracted. Its chief target markets are F&B companies that use CO2 for aeration in food processing and greenhouse owners. It also intends to enable the creation of carbon-neutral synthetic fuels using extracted CO2.
C-Capture, a spin-off from the University of Leeds, developed a bottom-up approach to design solvent systems for the removal of CO2 from gas streams. The patented technology captures CO2 from methane gas streams as it passes through and upgrades biogas. Reversibly captures carbon dioxide from power stations, steel and cement production, and fermentation units.